Main Article Content
Recent human activities, such as urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural intensification, have produced a concerning increase in the concentrations of trace metals in the aquatic environment. While metals such as copper are essential micro-nutrients to aqueous organisms, they become toxicants when surpassing a critical concentration threshold in the aquatic environment. The copper concentration of many natural water masses and tissue of aquatic organisms have been found to exceed essential levels. These elevated levels of copper lead to sub-lethal or toxic effects on adults or, more crucially, their larval stages, drastically impacting the diversity, health, structure and functioning of affected ecosystems. The detection, monitoring and assessment of copper concentrations are therefore key to the integrity of aquatic environments and are becoming increasingly important as a result of legislation and increasing public awareness.
Authors should note that in the spirit of open access to research Junctures is published under a New Zealand cc-by-nc-nd licence.
This licence is the most stringent cc-by licence currently available that means that people are free to read and redistribute the article but only with full acknowledgement of the author and the source. Although this licence does allow sharing of research, it does not allow any forms of commercial distribution. For more on cc licencing please see: http://www.creativecommons.org.nz/licences_explained__1 If you require your work to be published under a different licence please contact the Junctures Editorial Assistant.