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Early OA research quickly established the serious threat that more acidic oceans directly impose on calcifying organisms such as corals and bivalves because their calcium carbonate structures dissolve more easily and are more difficult to build as seawater pH decreases. Research continued to establish baseline effects of OA on individual organisms, before looking at multiple species responses and effects of double stressors (e.g., low pH + high temperature). Current OA research is leaning into community-level responses to two or three environmental drivers simultaneously, with the ultimate goal of understanding effects of OA within the context of multiple stressors and entire ecosystems.
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